The Project has been making good progress so far. Regarding the level of achievements, both the Output 1 and the Output 2 are considered to be good. Regarding the Output 3, the progress is slow compared to previous two Outputs; however the Review Team appreciates the Vietnamese counterparts’ ownership and initiative to bring forward the activities under the Output 3.

Regarding the Project Purpose, it is premature to determine the prospective level of achievements. In terms of the Five Evaluation Criteria, the relevance is considered to be remained high, the effectiveness is assured and the efficiency is appropriate. Some positive impacts have been observed in terms of enhanced collaboration among the Eastern Mekong countries. Regarding the sustainability of the Project, it is premature to determine organizational, financial and/or technical aspects of sustainability, though it is considered to be relatively high from the policy aspect.

Result of review

Evaluation Results by Five Evaluation Criteria






1) The Project design is in line with national policies of Vietnam, namely “Aviation Transport Development Master Plan of Vietnam” (2009 ). In addition, CAAV developed “CNS/ATM Implementation Plan up to 2020 and Vision to 2030” approved by MOT in 2011, both of which identify transition to the new CNS/ATM systems as one of the priority areas within the government of Vietnam.


2) As a contracting state of ICAO, Vietnam is committed to implementing the transition to the new CNS/ATM systems. CAAV reported the PBN Roadmap of Vietnam, of which development was undertaken by the Project, to ICAO APANPIRG. The Vietnam’s PBN Roadmap up to year 2015 accords with ICAO PBN Global Goals and Asia/Pacific Regional Plan.


3) The Project is consistent with priority areas for Japan’s Assistance Strategy to Vietnam. The Project is located under the development issue of “Urban Development, Transportation and Communications Network Development”, priority areas of “Promotion of Economic Growth and Strengthening of International Competitiveness”




1) The possibility of achieving the Project Purpose “To introduce the new CNS/ATM system in Vietnam” by 2015 is considered to be moderately high as a result of the Project. All three Outputs contribute to the achievement of the Project Purpose; therefore there are clear logical relations that link the Project Outputs with the Project Purpose.


2) For better understanding and more effective project management, the Review Team suggests the modification of PDM in terms of Objectively Verifiable Indicators and their means of verification, as well as some minor changes in wording of the Project Purpose.




1) WGS-84 surveys, flight validation and RAIM prediction information services are identified as the risk factors for efficiency as well as effectiveness of activities under Output 1.


2) Regarding the adequacy of input and level of activities, limited availability of resources of JICA Experts in a timely manner resulted in some delays in the progress of Output 3. This is identified as an inhibiting factor for efficient implementation of activities under Output 3.



As for the level of achievement of overall goal, it is verified that there are some positive factors that can contribute to its achievement as right:


1) The Project is enhancing capacity to establish PBN flight procedures in Vietnam, Cambodia and Lao PDR as a whole; hence the outcome of the Project would contribute to enlarge capacity of airspace in the region.


2) A new route was established in 2013 for the direct flight between Hanoi and Phu Quoc Airports, as a result of ATS cooperation meeting among Cambodia, Lao PDR and Vietnam. The meeting considered this achievement as a demonstration of close cooperation and collaboration in the Eastern Mekong region, with assistance of the Project .


3) No negative impacts have been reported so far.




From the policy perspective, transition to CNS/ATM systems is likely to remain to be one of the priority areas in Vietnam. CAAV developed “CNS/ATM Implementation Plan” in 2011, indicating plans up to 2020 and vision to 2030.



& Financial


1) As a risk factor under Output 1, limited human and financial resources in CAAV and ANSPs pose uncertainty to sustain level of outputs and outcomes of the Project. This includes the maintenance of PANADES.


2) As an encouraging factor under Output 2, CAAV and ANSPs show coordinated efforts to implement the basic level training program. Although the component regarding advanced level training program is yet to be started, it is estimated that CAAV and ANSPs have sufficient organizational and/or financial capacity to carry out new CNS/ATM Systems Training advanced course with support of JICA Experts.




1) Regarding PBN flight procedures, JICA Experts recognize 8 flight procedure designers capable of designing PBN flight procedures under this Project. In addition, 16 PBN procedures were designed for Hue Airport by C/P as a result of PBN OJT.


2) Regarding CNS/ATM training, there are 16 instructors (12 in VATM, 3 in ACV and 1 in VAA) who can teach basic level training courses. For new graduates, VAA has already incorporated the CNS/ATM basic component in their training program.






Modification of PDM

See here

Actions to Critical Activities to Achieve Output 1

The Review Team recognized that, among activities under the Output 1, WGS-84 survey, flight validation of designed PBN flight procedures and provision of RAIM prediction information services are most critical activities to achieve the Output 1 target. The Review Team recommends to both Vietnamese and Japanese side to undertake adequate actions including increased allocation of MOT budget to the relevant organizations.


WGS-84 Data Maintenance and Quality Management

With regard to compiling WGS-84 survey data, the Review Team noted that training courses undertaken by the JICA Experts and short-term experts have already transferred the technical knowledge to CAAV and ACV personnel and that Vietnamese counterpart planned surveys at additional two airports in 2013. It was emphasized that the proper maintenance of the WGS-84 survey data is paramount and the Review Team confirmed that the CAAV personnel had recognized this importance. However, manuals and procedures need to be formulated for the proper maintenance of the data. The Review Team suggests that CAAV should develop manuals and procedures by utilizing ICAO manual, materials from JICA Experts and some survey companies designated by CAAV for quality management of the survey.


PBN Implementation in En-route Phase

The Review Team recognized that while the PBN implementation in terminal phase of aircraft operations is progressing well, the benefit of the implementation in en-route phase had not been realized yet. The Vietnamese side would need to coordinate with other stakeholders to establish RNAV 5 routes. Attention should be drawn to the final target of the Project, which is 10 RNAV 5 routes by December 2015.


Preparation for Transfer of PANADES Flight Procedure Design System

The Review Team recommends the Vietnamese side to prepare for the transfer of PANADES flight procedure design system from the Japanese side. CAAV assigned one officer in charge of maintenance of the system. JICA Experts should conduct transfer of knowledge so that CAAV can take adequate actions through communication with the supplier of the system when troubles and irregularities occur. In addition, it is necessary to develop operation manual of PANADES. Roles and responsibilities of CAAV, the supplier and users shall also be documented. It is also necessary that the Vietnamese side will secure budget for the annual maintenance fee of the system after the Project period.


Enhancement of Output 3 Activities

With regard to slower progress of the Output 3 as compared with the Outputs 1 and 2, the Review Team recommends the Japanese side in particular that assistance to the Vietnamese counterparts should be enhanced timely to the Project activities. The adequate amount of resources should be shifted to the Output 3 by direct involvement of the JICA Experts to the Output 3 trainings to the possible extent.


The Review Team also recommends the Japanese side, if it is necessary and adequate as well as if the budget allows, to consider additional training in Japan or the third country to enhance the progress of the Output 3. Necessary changes should be made on the input by the Japanese side in the PDM.


In regard to the needs of auditors, the Review Team was informed that the four Vietnamese auditors had been certified so far who are able to conduct audit to all ANS fields. Japanese side, however, confirmed that, auditors are expected to provide oversight to regulations of each specific field, not to how the SMS program is run. In this regard, auditors are supposed to be field specific, i.e. ATM, AIS, PANS-OPS, CNS, MET and SAR, and the Review Team suggested that the target in the PDM be field specific.


Communications among JICA Experts, Japan Civil Aviation Bureau (JCAB) and JICA

The Review Team felt that the information was sometimes not properly exchanged among the JICA headquarters, JICA Vietnam Office, the JCAB headquarters, and the Project. In order to ensure necessary assistance from JCAB and timely arrangement by JICA, parties concerned are requested to enhance close coordination and communications.


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