The Projecthas been making good progress so far. Regarding the level of achievements, both the Output 1 and the Output 2 are considered to be good. Regarding the Output 3, the progress is slow compared to previous two Outputs; however the Review Team appreciates the Cambodiancounterparts’ ownership and initiative to bring forward the activities under the Output 3.

Regarding the Project Purpose, it is premature to determine the prospective level of achievements. In terms of the Five Evaluation Criteria, the relevance is considered to be remained high, the effectiveness is assured and the efficiency is appropriate. Some positive impacts have been observed in terms ofenhanced collaboration among the Eastern Mekong countries. Regarding the sustainability of the Project, it is premature to determine organizational, financial and/or technical aspects of sustainability, though it is considered to be relatively high from thepolicy aspect.

Result of review

Evaluation Results by Five Evaluation Criteria






1) The Project design is in line with national policies of Cambodia, namely “Aviation Transport Policy and strategies 2009-2013”, which identify transition to the new CNS/ATM systems as one of the priority areas within the government of Cambodia.


2) As a contracting state of ICAO, Cambodia is committed to implementing the transition to the new CNS/ATM systems. SSCA reported the PBN Roadmap of Cambodia, of which development was undertaken by the Project, to ICAO APANPIRG. The Cambodia’s PBN Roadmap up to year 2015 accords with ICAO PBN Global Goals and Asia/Pacific Regional Plan.


3) The Project is consistent with priority areas for Japan’s Assistance Strategy to Cambodia. The Project is located under the development subject of “Improvement of Social and Economic Infrastructure and Conditions for Economic Progress”, under the priority area of “Realization of Sustainable Economic Growth and a Stable Society”.




1) The possibility of achieving the Project Purpose “To introduce the new CNS/ATM system in Cambodia” by 2015 is considered to be moderately high as a result of the Project. All three Outputs contribute to the achievement of the Project Purpose; therefore there are clear logical relations that link the Project Outputs with the Project Purpose.


2) Target number of airports for PBN implementation (indicator for Output 1 if PBN Roadmap is reviewed) is yet to be determined among the Project members. During the Mid-term Review study, the Review Team intended to determine target numbers for the mentioned indicators, however more sufficient time was required to set up longer-term target (for the year 2015) discussed and agreed at the institutional level. The effectiveness of the Project shall increase if targets of the mentioned indicators are identified in due course.


3) For better understanding and more effective project management, the Review Team suggests the modification of PDM in terms of Objectively Verifiable Indicators and their means of verification, as well as some minor changes in wording of the Project Purpose.




1) Regarding the adequacy of input and level of activities, limited availability of resources of JICA short-term experts in a timely manner resulted in some delays in the progress of Output 3 during the first half of the Project. Efficiency of the Project would increase if current assignment of JICA Experts is allocated appropriately for Output 3, as well as for follow-up of risk factors such as WGS-84 procedures and guidelines under Output 1.


2) Distribution of tasks among long-term experts can be reviewed to accommodate the needs under Output 1, 2 and 3 identified during the Mid-term review. The revision of mission plans by experts as well as simplification of structure of project meetings may be considered to enhance efficiency of the Project.



As for the level of achievement of overall goal, it is verified that there are some positive factors that can contribute to its achievement as right:

1) The Project is enhancing capacity to establish PBN flight procedures in Vietnam, Cambodia and Lao PDR as a whole; hence the outcome of the Project would contribute to enlarge capacity of airspace in the region.


2) Anew route was established in 2013 for the direct flight between Hanoi and Phu Quoc Airports, as a result of ATS cooperation meeting among Cambodia, Lao PDR and Vietnam. The meeting considered this achievement as a demonstration of close cooperation and collaboration in the Eastern Mekong region, with assistance of the Project .


3) No negative impacts have been reported so far.





From the policy perspective, transition to CNS/ATM systems is likely to remain to be one of the priority areas in Cambodia. SSCA developed “Air Transport Policy” and “National Strategic Development Plan” update 2009-2013, and modifying the strategy for the next five years2013-2018, emphasizing the same priority as the new CNS/ATM system for air traffic control sector.



& Financial


1) Financial as well as institutional arrangements for implementing WGS-84 survey and flight validation are the most critical elements under Output 1. The prospect for sustainability would increase if coordinated efforts as well as budget are secured to implement WGS-84 survey in collaboration with related agencies such as MLUC. Similarly, the prospects for sustainability would also increase if flight validation services are provided at reasonable costs by ATTECH of Vietnam as it plans to procure necessary equipment for flight validation in 2014.


2) In terms of training for air traffic controllers and air navigation technical staff, the organizational as well as financial sustainability would be enhanced if new CNS/ATM training courses are to be incorporated into regular training program implemented by SSCA and CATS.




1) Regarding PBN flight procedures, JICA Experts recognize4 flight procedure designers capable of designing PBN flight procedures under this Project. In addition, 34 PBN procedures were designed for Phnom Penh Airport by C/P as a result of OJT on PBN flight procedures.


2) The Review Team also notes some encouraging factors under Output 2, that SSCA and CATS show good progress for the implementation of the basic level training program. Although the advanced level component is yet to be started, the instructors from SSCA reported that they are confident enough to carry out new CNS/ATM Systems Training course with support of JICA Experts.






Modification of PDM

See here

Review of PBN Roadmap

In accordance with the Cambodian PBN Roadmap, the Project aims at introducing PBN flight procedures at 3 international airports and 4 domestic airports by the end of 2015. However, no commercial regular flights are operated presently at those domestic airports. From the viewpoints of cost-effectiveness, it would be necessary that the implementation plan of PBN flight procedures at those domestic airports and thus the Cambodian PBN Roadmap should be reviewed.


PBN Implementation in En-route Phase

The Review Team recognized that while the PBN implementation in terminal phase of aircraft operations is progressing well, the benefit of the implementation in en-route phase had not been realized yet. The Cambodian side would need to coordinate with adjacent countries to establish RNAV5 routes for continental airspace and RNP4 routes for oceanic airspace.


Technical Guidelines of WGS-84 Surveys

It is necessary that technical guidelines for WGS-84 surveys including surveys of obstacles be developed for quality management as recommended by JICA Experts. The Review Team suggests that JICA Experts should strengthen the support as SSCA has difficulty in this area.


Assurance of organizational and financial sustainability of new CNS/ATM training program

Indicators for Output 2 were modified to assure incorporation of new CNS/ATM subjects into regulatory framework of SSCA and CATS (see section 6.2.1 for details). SSCA and CATS are suggested to incorporate new CNS/ATM subjects into their regular training programs targeting especially new recruits of ATC and air navigation technical staff.


Enhancement of Output 3 Activities

With regard to slower progress of the Output 3 as compared with the Outputs 1 and 2, the Review Team recommends the Japanese side in particular that assistance to the Cambodian counterparts should be enhanced timely to the Project activities. The adequate amount of resources should be shifted to the Output 3 by direct involvement of the JICA Experts to the Output 3 trainings to the possible extent.


The Review Team also recommends the Japanese side, if it is necessary and adequate as well as if the budget allows, to consider additional training in Japan or the third country to enhance the progress of the Output 3.


Transfer of Knowledge at the Project Meetings

JICA Experts and Cambodian Counterparts have regular Project Meetings with intervals of 1 to 2 months for review of the project activities, exchange of opinions, advice from JICA Experts, confirmation of project schedules, etc. The Review Team observes that the Project Meetings are more oriented for monitoring of the activities by the counterparts. It is suggested that the visit of JICA Experts to Cambodia for the Project Meetings be utilized more for technical transfer, for example on WGS-84 survey guidelines, SMS procedures and guidelines, and safety audit of ANSP ,for increased effectiveness and efficiency of the JICA Experts’ visits.


Communications among JICA Experts, Japan Civil Aviation Bureau (JCAB) and JICA

The Review Team felt that the information was sometimes not properly exchanged among JICA headquarters, JICA Cambodia Office, JCAB headquarters, and the Project. In order to ensure necessary assistance from JCAB and timely arrangement by JICA, parties concerned are requested to enhance close coordination and communications.


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